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Avalanches Deutsch

Avalanches Deutsch Beispiele aus dem Internet (nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft)

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für avalanche im Online-Wörterbuch (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'avalanche' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für avalanche im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. To analyse the avalanche danger, a knowledge of both the basic relationships between weather and the snowpack and the relationships between snow layering. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'avalanche' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache.

Avalanches Deutsch

To analyse the avalanche danger, a knowledge of both the basic relationships between weather and the snowpack and the relationships between snow layering. [1–3] Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie „avalanche“: [1–3] PONS Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „avalanche“​: [1] Übersetzung für 'avalanches' im kostenlosen Portugiesisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

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Avalanches , flooding or storm damage - proactive management of such natural hazards can minimize risks and crises. Beispiele aus dem Internet nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft Ministry of Territorial Administration, Armenia, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Azerbaijan and Ministry of Environment Protection, Georgia Overall term : to Context Most settlements and villages in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus have been built in places where forests offered a certain level of protection against avalanches , rockfalls, landslides and similar erosion-related occurrences. We can also not grant any reimbursement or extension in the event of bad weather, risk of avalanches , early departure, cessation of operation caused by the weather or closure of ski slopes. We can unfortunately not replace lost ski passes or tickets. First research facility on the Weissfluhjoch in The members of the Commission soon realised, however, that their interest in avalanches had to extend beyond the summer; they needed to observe the snow in the winter and learn about its structure and the evolution of microscopic snow crystals. Insgesamt gibt es mehr als 10 verschiedene Extras, die vielfältig eingesetzt werden können.. Avalanches Deutsch

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Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'avalanches' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Übersetzung für 'avalanches' im kostenlosen Portugiesisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Avalanches“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Water problems in the Carpathian Forest Avalanches, floods and lack of​. [1–3] Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie „avalanche“: [1–3] PONS Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „avalanche“​: [1] avalanche - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. avalanches: v 3rd person singular The avalanche crushed five ski chalets, but there were no casualties. Uncertainty associated with the empirical understanding of the factors influencing snow stability leads most source avalanche workers to recommend conservative use of avalanche terrain relative to current snowpack instability. Undersea Community EP 2 versions. In many areas, regular avalanche tracks can be identified and precautions can be taken to minimise damage, such as the prevention of development Sabo Tigers Thomas these areas. They can form from any type of snow or initiation mechanism, but usually click with Avalanches Deutsch dry powder. In the recreational setting most accidents are caused by the people involved in the avalanche. The gamma radiation Earth's atmosphere where it triggers avalanches of secondary particles that cause blue Cherenkov light reaching down to the ground. Januar als er Avalanches Deutsch für Dreharbeiten im Aran Tal in den spanischen Pyrenäen aufhielt:. Ihre E-Mail-Adresse optional. Water problems in the Carpathian Forest Avalanchesfloods and Avalanches Deutsch of drinking water are already threatening the surroundings of Svydovets. We can unfortunately not replace lost ski passes or final, Karten ZГ¤hlen Blackjack consider. Weitere wissenschaftliche Publikationen Casteller, A. Lawinen und Prävention. The members of the Commission soon realised, however, that their interest in avalanches had to extend beyond the summer; they needed to observe the snow in the winter and learn about its NГјrnberg Casino and the evolution of microscopic snow crystals. Avalanches Deutsch

Avoid areas of increased risk, such as slopes steeper than 30 degrees or areas under steep slopes. Know the signs of increased danger, including recent avalanches and shooting cracks across slopes.

Wear a helmet to help reduce head injuries and create air pockets. Wear an avalanche beacon to help rescuers locate you.

Use an avalanche airbag that may help you from being completely buried. Carry a collapsible avalanche probe and a small shovel to help rescue others.

If your partner or others are buried, call and then begin to search if it is safe to do so. If you have the proper training, treat others for suffocation, hypothermia, traumatic injury or shock.

Hypothermia is an unusually low body temperature. A body temperature below 95 degrees is an emergency. Signs: Shivering, exhaustion, confusion, fumbling hands, memory loss, slurred speech and drowsiness.

Actions: Go to a warm room or shelter. Listed alphabetically: [2] [5] [40]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Australian band.

For other uses, see Avalanche disambiguation. Plunderphonics sampledelia hip hop neo-psychedelia dance disco electronic. Main article: Since I Left You.

Main article: Wildflower The Avalanches album. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: The Avalanches discography. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 7 September Australian Rock Database.

Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 13 February The London Evening Standard. Retrieved 8 September Prahran, Vic : Hardie Grant Books.

Note: limited preview available for [on-line] version. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 22 January The Courier.

Fairfax Media. Retrieved 11 September The Sydney Morning Herald. Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. Archived from the original on 6 February Hung Medien.

Retrieved 3 March Modular Recordings. Editorial Reviews. Official Charts Company. Retrieved 9 September Strong freeze-thaw cycles result in the formation of surface crusts during the night and of unstable surface snow during the day.

Slopes in the lee of a ridge or of another wind obstacle accumulate more snow and are more likely to include pockets of deep snow, wind slabs , and cornices , all of which, when disturbed, may result in avalanche formation.

Conversely, the snowpack on a windward slope is often much shallower than on a lee slope. Avalanches and avalanche paths share common elements: a start zone where the avalanche originates, a track along which the avalanche flows, and a runout zone where the avalanche comes to rest.

The debris deposit is the accumulated mass of the avalanched snow once it has come to rest in the runout zone. For the image at left, many small avalanches form in this avalanche path every year, but most of these avalanches do not run the full vertical or horizontal length of the path.

The frequency with which avalanches form in a given area is known as the return period. The start zone of an avalanche must be steep enough to allow snow to accelerate once set in motion, additionally convex slopes are less stable than concave slopes, because of the disparity between the tensile strength of snow layers and their compressive strength.

The composition and structure of the ground surface beneath the snowpack influences the stability of the snowpack, either being a source of strength or weakness.

Avalanches are unlikely to form in very thick forests, but boulders and sparsely distributed vegetation can create weak areas deep within the snowpack through the formation of strong temperature gradients.

Full-depth avalanches avalanches that sweep a slope virtually clean of snow cover are more common on slopes with smooth ground, such as grass or rock slabs.

Generally speaking, avalanches follow drainages down-slope, frequently sharing drainage features with summertime watersheds. At and below tree line , avalanche paths through drainages are well defined by vegetation boundaries called trim lines , which occur where avalanches have removed trees and prevented regrowth of large vegetation.

Engineered drainages, such as the avalanche dam on Mount Stephen in Kicking Horse Pass , have been constructed to protect people and property by redirecting the flow of avalanches.

Deep debris deposits from avalanches will collect in catchments at the terminus of a run out, such as gullies and river beds. When the incidence of human triggered avalanches is normalized by the rates of recreational use, however, hazard increases uniformly with slope angle, and no significant difference in hazard for a given exposure direction can be found.

The snowpack is composed of ground-parallel layers that accumulate over the winter. Each layer contains ice grains that are representative of the distinct meteorological conditions during which the snow formed and was deposited.

Once deposited, a snow layer continues to evolve under the influence of the meteorological conditions that prevail after deposition.

For an avalanche to occur, it is necessary that a snowpack have a weak layer or instability below a slab of cohesive snow.

In practice the formal mechanical and structural factors related to snowpack instability are not directly observable outside of laboratories, thus the more easily observed properties of the snow layers e.

This results in two principal sources of uncertainty in determining snowpack stability based on snow structure: First, both the factors influencing snow stability and the specific characteristics of the snowpack vary widely within small areas and time scales, resulting in significant difficulty extrapolating point observations of snow layers across different scales of space and time.

Second, the relationship between readily observable snowpack characteristics and the snowpack's critical mechanical properties has not been completely developed.

While the deterministic relationship between snowpack characteristics and snowpack stability is still a matter of ongoing scientific study, there is a growing empirical understanding of the snow composition and deposition characteristics that influence the likelihood of an avalanche.

Observation and experience has shown that newly fallen snow requires time to bond with the snow layers beneath it, especially if the new snow falls during very cold and dry conditions.

If ambient air temperatures are cold enough, shallow snow above or around boulders, plants, and other discontinuities in the slope, weakens from rapid crystal growth that occurs in the presence of a critical temperature gradient.

Large, angular snow crystals are indicators of weak snow, because such crystals have fewer bonds per unit volume than small, rounded crystals that pack tightly together.

Consolidated snow is less likely to slough than loose powdery layers or wet isothermal snow; however, consolidated snow is a necessary condition for the occurrence of slab avalanches , and persistent instabilities within the snowpack can hide below well-consolidated surface layers.

Uncertainty associated with the empirical understanding of the factors influencing snow stability leads most professional avalanche workers to recommend conservative use of avalanche terrain relative to current snowpack instability.

Avalanches can only occur in a standing snowpack. Typically winter seasons at high latitudes, high altitudes, or both have weather that is sufficiently unsettled and cold enough for precipitated snow to accumulate into a seasonal snowpack.

Continentality , through its potentiating influence on the meteorological extremes experienced by snowpacks, is an important factor in the evolution of instabilities, and consequential occurrence of avalanches.

Conversely, proximity to coastal environments moderates the meteorological extremes experienced by snowpacks, and results in a faster stabilization of the snowpack after storm cycles.

Among the critical factors controlling snowpack evolution are: heating by the sun, radiational cooling , vertical temperature gradients in standing snow, snowfall amounts, and snow types.

Generally, mild winter weather will promote the settlement and stabilization of the snowpack; conversely, very cold, windy, or hot weather will weaken the snowpack.

At temperatures close to the freezing point of water, or during times of moderate solar radiation, a gentle freeze-thaw cycle will take place.

The melting and refreezing of water in the snow strengthens the snowpack during the freezing phase and weakens it during the thawing phase.

A rapid rise in temperature, to a point significantly above the freezing point of water, may cause avalanche formation at any time of year.

Persistent cold temperatures can either prevent new snow from stabilizing or destabilize the existing snowpack. These angular crystals, which bond poorly to one another and the surrounding snow, often become a persistent weakness in the snowpack.

When a slab lying on top of a persistent weakness is loaded by a force greater than the strength of the slab and persistent weak layer, the persistent weak layer can fail and generate an avalanche.

Any wind stronger than a light breeze can contribute to a rapid accumulation of snow on sheltered slopes downwind. Wind slab forms quickly and, if present, weaker snow below the slab may not have time to adjust to the new load.

Even on a clear day, wind can quickly load a slope with snow by blowing snow from one place to another. Top-loading occurs when wind deposits snow from the top of a slope; cross-loading occurs when wind deposits snow parallel to the slope.

When a wind blows over the top of a mountain, the leeward, or downwind, side of the mountain experiences top-loading, from the top to the bottom of that lee slope.

When the wind blows across a ridge that leads up the mountain, the leeward side of the ridge is subject to cross-loading.

Cross-loaded wind-slabs are usually difficult to identify visually. Snowstorms and rainstorms are important contributors to avalanche danger.

Heavy snowfall will cause instability in the existing snowpack, both because of the additional weight and because the new snow has insufficient time to bond to underlying snow layers.

Rain has a similar effect. In the short-term, rain causes instability because, like a heavy snowfall, it imposes an additional load on the snowpack; and, once rainwater seeps down through the snow, it acts as a lubricant, reducing the natural friction between snow layers that holds the snowpack together.

Most avalanches happen during or soon after a storm. Daytime exposure to sunlight will rapidly destabilize the upper layers of the snowpack if the sunlight is strong enough to melt the snow, thereby reducing its hardness.

During clear nights, the snowpack can re-freeze when ambient air temperatures fall below freezing, through the process of long-wave radiative cooling, or both.

Radiative heat loss occurs when the night air is significantly cooler than the snowpack, and the heat stored in the snow is re-radiated into the atmosphere.

When a slab avalanche forms, the slab disintegrates into increasingly smaller fragments as the snow travels downhill. If the fragments become small enough the outer layer of the avalanche, called a saltation layer, takes on the characteristics of a fluid.

When sufficiently fine particles are present they can become airborne and, given a sufficient quantity of airborne snow, this portion of the avalanche can become separated from the bulk of the avalanche and travel a greater distance as a powder snow avalanche.

Driving an avalanche is the component of the avalanche's weight parallel to the slope; as the avalanche progresses any unstable snow in its path will tend to become incorporated, so increasing the overall weight.

This force will increase as the steepness of the slope increases, and diminish as the slope flattens.

Resisting this are a number of components that are thought to interact with each other: the friction between the avalanche and the surface beneath; friction between the air and snow within the fluid; fluid-dynamic drag at the leading edge of the avalanche; shear resistance between the avalanche and the air through which it is passing, and shear resistance between the fragments within the avalanche itself.

An avalanche will continue to accelerate until the resistance exceeds the forward force. Attempts to model avalanche behaviour date from the early 20th century, notably the work of Professor Lagotala in preparation for the Winter Olympics in Chamonix.

Voellmy and popularised following the publication in of his Ueber die Zerstoerungskraft von Lawinen On the Destructive Force of Avalanches.

Voellmy used a simple empirical formula, treating an avalanche as a sliding block of snow moving with a drag force that was proportional to the square of the speed of its flow: [17].

He and others subsequently derived other formulae that take other factors into account, with the Voellmy-Salm-Gubler and the Perla-Cheng-McClung models becoming most widely used as simple tools to model flowing as opposed to powder snow avalanches.

Since the s many more sophisticated models have been developed. Preventative measures are employed in areas where avalanches pose a significant threat to people, such as ski resorts , mountain towns, roads, and railways.

There are several ways to prevent avalanches and lessen their power and develop preventative measures to reduce the likelihood and size of avalanches by disrupting the structure of the snowpack, while passive measures reinforce and stabilize the snowpack in situ.

The simplest active measure is repeatedly traveling on a snowpack as snow accumulates; this can be by means of boot-packing, ski-cutting, or machine grooming.

Explosives are used extensively to prevent avalanches, by triggering smaller avalanches that break down instabilities in the snowpack, and removing overburden that can result in larger avalanches.

Explosive charges are delivered by a number of methods including hand-tossed charges, helicopter-dropped bombs, Gazex concussion lines, and ballistic projectiles launched by air cannons and artillery.

Passive preventive systems such as snow fences and light walls can be used to direct the placement of snow. Snow builds up around the fence, especially the side that faces the prevailing winds.

Downwind of the fence, snow buildup is lessened. This is caused by the loss of snow at the fence that would have been deposited and the pickup of the snow that is already there by the wind, which was depleted of snow at the fence.

When there is a sufficient density of trees , they can greatly reduce the strength of avalanches. They hold snow in place and when there is an avalanche, the impact of the snow against the trees slows it down.

Trees can either be planted or they can be conserved, such as in the building of a ski resort, to reduce the strength of avalanches.

In many areas, regular avalanche tracks can be identified and precautions can be taken to minimise damage, such as the prevention of development in these areas.

To mitigate the effect of avalanches the construction of artificial barriers can be very effective in reducing avalanche damage.

There are several types: One kind of barrier snow net uses a net strung between poles that are anchored by guy wires in addition to their foundations.

These barriers are similar to those used for rockslides. Another type of barrier is a rigid fence-like structure snow fence and may be constructed of steel , wood or pre-stressed concrete.

They usually have gaps between the beams and are built perpendicular to the slope, with reinforcing beams on the downhill side.

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